Laura L. Frader
Foreign workersFrader is chiefly concerned with how hegemonic ideas about gender
*were constructed not *constructed not they were challenged Thus she tends to discount opposition to the male breadwinner ideal from feminists female labor leaders and working women themselves She characterizes working women s alternative vision of egalitarian gender relations as utopian p 46 However she acknowledges some significant victories publically employed r dactrices chief clerks won the right to eual pay in the early 1920s and dames employ es female postal workers secured it by the end of the decad. Easing number of immigrant men in the labor force competed for employment and pay Family policy was used not only to encourage reproduction but also to regulate wages and the size of the workforce Policies TO PROMOTE MARRIED WOMEN'S AND IMMIGRANTS promote married women's and immigrants from the labor force were common when jobs were scarce as they were during the Depression Frader contends that gender and ethnicity exerted a powerful and unacknowledged influence on French social policy during theDepression era and for decades afterwardAbout the AuthorLaura Levine Frader is Professor of History at Northeastern Universit.
Nly earned higher wages and greater access to skilled positions but also consistently enjoyed better social benefits including family allowances for dependent children Political social and economic citizenship reinforced each other and women who did not gain the right to vote in France until 1944 remained and women who did not gain the right to vote in France until 1944 remained players in all three arenas The Depression of the 1930s affirmed rather than challenged the model of the male breadwinner Frader argues employers tried to preserve French men S Jobs At The Expense jobs at the expense married women s positions and popular sentiment turned against. Rts to redefine citizenship in the 1920s and 1930s She demonstrates that gender divisions and the male breadwinner ideal were reaffirmed through the policies and practices of labor management and government The social model that France implemented in the 1920s and 1930s incorporated fundamental social ineualitiesFrader's analysis moves between the everyday lives of ordinary working women and men and the actions of national policymakers political parties and political movements including feminists pro natalists and trade unionists In the ears following World War I the many women and an incr. ,
Frader argues that the demographic crisis SET BY FRANCE S HIGH off by France s high rates in the First World War led pronatalist policies that affirmed men as wage earners while casting women as mothers first and workers second While previous scholars have pointed to women s high rates of labor force participation in France as evidence of a relatively weak male breadwinner ideal Frader argues that this perspective masks the strong historical ambivalence surrounding women s work and the persistent efforts to contest and contain women s rights as wage earners p 6French men not Laura Levine Frader's synthesis of labor history and gender history brings to the fore failures in realizing the French social model of euality for all citizens Challenging previous scholarship she argues that the male breadwinner ideal was stronger in France in the interwar ears than scholars have typically recognized and that it had negative conseuences for women's claims to the full
benefits of citizenship She describes how ideas about masculinity femininity family andof citizenship She describes how ideas about masculinity femininity family and affected post World War I reconstruction policies designed to address France's postwar population deficit and effo. .